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1、名词的单复数

规则变化+s/es、不规则变化(mouse-mice)、单复数同形、同一词在不同意义下有可能可数有可能不可数


2、名词所有格

‘s(表示有生命:Lily’s desk)、of所有格(表示无生命the window of the room)


3、名词修饰语

只修饰可数名词(each、every、a great many)、只修饰不可数名词(little、a little、 alarge amount of)、都可以修饰(some、alot of、plenty of)


4、不定冠词(a/an单数不特指);定冠词(the/this/that/these/those表特定)


5、such的用法

such作限定词和all,no,any,some,other,anther等词连用时,such放后面。

如果such修饰单数可数名词,且与不定冠词连用时需置于其前;such前有no时不用冠词。


6、so的用法

在believe,think,expect,suppose等词后用so代替前文提出的观点

在肯定句中表示与上文相同的情况,如:So do I.


7、all和both的用法

all三者或三者以上全部都,both二者都。all指整体或抽象事物时当做单数,指人时当做复数。both做主语时,谓语动词用复数。


8、many修饰或替代可数名词,much修饰或替代不可数名词

many a 许多(谓语动词用单数)

a good/greatmany很多

as many as/asmuch as一样多、差不多


9、little几乎没有,修饰不可数名词

a little有一点,修饰不可数名词

few几乎没有,修饰可数名词

a few有一点,修饰可数名词


10、形容词比较级最高级

原级比较:…is as good asmine.

表示少于或超过另一方:fewer than, morethan

易混淆短语:as well as也…既…

as far as就…而言



11、比较级常见错误:用much表强调时的误用

She looks more younger than I.(×)

She looks much younger than I.(√)


12、介词短语重点

except for除了

in place of代替

on behalf of代表

but for要不是

in front of在…前面


13、介词across, over, through, past四个常考介词的区别

across 横穿穿越,发生在物体表面

over 跨过越过,发生在物体上方

through 穿过,发生在某物空间内

past 从旁经过


                            

14、易混淆的介词短语

in all总共

after all毕竟

at all根本,常用在否定句中表强调

above all最重要的是,尤其是


15、序数词前一定要加定冠词the,改错常考,序数词与基数词连用时,序数词放在前面,如the first one。


16、will和would的用法(常考)

will常与第二人称you连用,表示征求对方意见,will you/won’t you?

would更委婉客气一些,常用短语:would like to dowould rather宁愿


17、虚拟语气

 

18、一般现在时表将来的2种情况:

拟定或安排好的事情、一定要发生的动作:The train arrives at 10.

在时间状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句中一般现在时表将来


19、过去即将要发生的动作:was/were about todo sth.


20、句子中出现过去时,才会使用过去完成时表过去的过去-一直延续到过去的动作

I was tired. I had been working sincedawn.



21、常用句型:

It is adj. for sb.to do sth.

It is adj. of sb. to do sth.(形容词评价某人)


22、经常接疑问词+不定式的动词:learn, ask, discuss, explain, know, remember, forget, understand, think, consider, decide.

如 I have to learn how to study English.


23、主谓一致

the number of+复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数

a number of+复数名词时,谓语动词用复数

someplentyofa lot of,谓语动词根据所修饰的词而定

a quantity of谓语动词用单数;large quantities of谓语动词用复数


24、谓语动词就近一致:

either…or…/neither…nor…/not only…but also…谓语动词和靠近的主语一致(常考)


25、同位语从句

常跟同位语从句的名词或短语(常考):belief /doubt /hope /report /word /opinion /idea…使用举例:We have some doubt whether they can complete the task on time.


26、直接引语和间接引语

变间接引语要向前推一个时态!例:

He said, ”I am sorry.”

He said that he was sorry.


27、定语从句who/whom的用法(介词+whom)例:

He is the man who lives next door.

I have many friends to whom I am going to send postcards.


28、定语从句that/which的用法,通常可以互换,但下列情况必须用that(改错常考):

先行词是all,much,few,little,something等不定代词时

先行词有the only,thesame,the very修饰时

主句是以which开头的特殊疑问句时

先行词既有物又有人时

先行词是序数词、形容词最高级时


29、as和which用法辨析,引导非限定性定语从句

as的先行词只能是句子,which的先行词可以是词。


30、表示一…就的引导词

as soonas/immediately/instantly/the moment/no sooner than/hardly



31、no sooner与hardly在句首时,要求句子倒装。


32、so that 连用引导目的/结果状语从句

so adj./adv./many/few+that:There is so little time that…

such adj.+名词+that:Kathy is such a lovely girl that…


33、强调句型:It is/was 被强调的部分 that/who 句子剩余部分,和定语从句的区别:

It was 8 when I left home.(定语从句)


34、"wish +宾语从句",表示不大 可能实现的愿望

表示现在的不能实现的愿望:主语+过去时;

表示过去的不能实现的愿望:主语+had done;

表示将来的不能实现的愿望:主语+would/could do


35、It was + 时间段+before…."过了多久才……"

It was not long before…."不久,就……"

It will (not) be +时间段+before…."要过多久(不久)……才……"(before从句谓语动词要用一般时态)


36、as if/though+主语+did/had done…好像……(表示现在或将来的情况用过去时;表示过去的情况用过去完成时)[参考句型4]
  [例句]
  Our head teacher treats us as if we were her own children, so all the students in our class think highly of her.


37、as, though, although引导的让步状语从句。
  [注意]although位于句首;though位于句首或句中;as位于句中=though。它的词序是把句中强调的形容词、副词、动词或名词放在连词前。


38、in case of…(+n.) "以防;万一";
  in case that…"以防,万一……"(谓语动词用一般现在时态或should+动词原形)


39、作文段首高分句型

关于……人们有不同的观点。一些人认为……
There are different opinions among people as to ____ .Some people suggest that____.
俗话说(常言道)……,它是我们前辈的经历,但是,即使在今天,它在许多场合仍然适用。
There is an old saying that______. It"s the experience of our fore fathers;however,it is correct in many cases even today.
现在,……,它们给我们的日常生活带来了许多危害。首先,……;其次,……。更为糟糕的是……。
Today, ____, which have brought a lot of harms in our daily life. First, ____Second,____. What makes things worse is that______.
关于……人们的观点各不相同,一些人认为(说)……,在他们看来,……
People's opinions about ______ vary from person to person. Some people say that______.To them,_____.


40、作文中间段落高分句型
相反,有一些人赞成……,他们相信……,而且,他们认为……。
On the contrary,there are some people in favor of___.At the same time,they say____.
但是,我认为这不是解决……的好方法,比如……。最糟糕的是……。
But I don’t think it is a very good way to solve ____.For example,____.Worst of all,___.
对我们国家的发展和建设是必不可少的,(也是)非常重要的。首先,……。而且……,最重要的是……

______isnecessary and important to our country"s development and construction.First,______.What’s more, _____.Most important of all,______.
为什么……?第一个原因是……;第二个原因是……;第三个原因是……。总的来说,……的主要原因是由于……
Why______? The first reason is that ______.The second reason is ______.Thethird is ______.For all this, the main cause of ______ is due to ______.I fully agree on the statement that ______ because______.



41、作文结尾段落高分句型
至于我,在某种程度上我同意后面的观点,我认为……
As far as I am concerned, I agree on the latter opinion to some extent. I think that ____.
总而言之,整个社会应该密切关注……这个问题。只有这样,我们才能在将来……。

In a word, the whole society should pay close attention to the problem of ______.Only in this way can ______in the future.
但是,……和……都有它们各自的优势(好处)。例如,……,而……。然而,把这两者相比较,我更倾向于(喜欢)……
But ______and ______have their own advantages. For example, _____, while_____.Comparing this with that, however, I prefer to______.
就我个人而言,我相信……,因此,我坚信美好的未来正等着我们。因为……
Personally, I believe that_____. Consequently, I'm confident that a bright future is awaiting us because______.

至于我(对我来说,就我而言),我认为……更合理。只有这样,我们才能……
For my part, I think it reasonable to_____. Only in this way can we _____.


42、英语作文表达常用句型短语(表达原因)

A number of factors are accountable for this situation.

The answer to this problem involves many factors.  

The phenomenon mainly stems from the fact that...  
Perhaps the primary factor is that …  


43、表示比较
The advantages far outweigh the disadvantages.  

The advantages of A are much greater than those of B.  
A may be prefer able to B, but A suffers from the disadvantages that...  
It is reasonable to maintain that ...but it would be foolish to claim that... 

For all the disadvantages, it has its compensating advantages.  
Like anything else, it has its faults.  
It is true that A ... , but the chief faults (obvious defects )are ... 

 
44、表示批驳
It is true that ..., but one vital point is being left out.  
There is a grain of truth in these statements, but they ignore a more importantfact.  
Some people say ..., but it does not hold water.  
Many of us have been under the illusion that...  
Too much stress placed on ... may lead to ...  
Contrary to what is widely accepted, I maintain that ... 

 
45、表示后果
It may give rise to a host of problems.  
The immediate result it produces is ...  
It will exercise a profound influence upon...  

Its consequence can be so great that...  


46、将要举例

A good case inpoint is ...  
Such examples might be given easily.  
...is often cited as an example.  


47、表示证明
No one can deny the fact that ...  

The idea is hardly supported by facts.  
Unfortunately, none of the available data shows ...  

Recent studiesindicate that ...  
There is sufficient evidence to show that ...  
According to statistics proved by ..., it can be seen that ...  


48、反义疑问句速记口诀:

反意问句三要点,前后谓语正相反;
短句not如出现,必须缩写是习惯;
最后一点应注意,短句主语代词填


49、短文改错易错点四要法:

要先浏览全文,知道大意

要通过找句号把长句子拆分出来

要分析句子结构,再从“多、缺、错、对”四方面细看

要通读改后的文章,用语感通查



50、短文改错四看法:

看有无一致性问题(主谓一致、单复数一致)

看有无搭配错误(动宾搭配、介词搭配)

看词法和语法错误(冠词、非谓语动词误用)

看每行每句间的逻辑错误(甚至有外形相同的词汇误用)


51、agree to同意某项计划或安排

agree with同意某人

agree on达成协议、意见一致


52、also用于肯定句,放在系动词、助动词、情态动词后

too&as well用于肯定句,放在句末(too用逗号隔开)

either用于否定句,放在句末

例:John also plays piano./He speaks French, and English as well./I want to eat an apple, too./Idon’t watch TV, either.


53、become指身份和职位的变化

get+形容词表变得,多用于口语

grow表逐渐变成某种状态

turn+表颜色和天气的形容词,变得和以前完全不同

go+adj.从好的状态变成坏的状态


54、before long不久以后

long before很久以前(多用于过去完成时)


55、but表转折语气最强烈

while强调前后者对比Tom is reading while Jim is playing football.

however表示转折常用于插入语,需要和句子用逗号隔开

though引导让步状语从句


56、compare…with…把…与…相比

compare…to…把…比作…Life is compared to a voyage.生命被比作一次航行。


57、damage表示部分损坏

ruin和destroy表示彻底的损毁,但destroy只能作动词,ruin可以表示名词


58、die of因…而死,表示内部原因如疾病

die from因…而死,表示外部原因如交通事故


59、be famous for以…出名(某种技能、某部作品)

be famous as以某种身份出名

be famous to为某人所知The writer is famous to us.


60、hear of间接的听说

hear about听到…的详情

hear from收到…的来信



61、in future距现在距离较近的将来Don’t do that in future.

in the future距现在距离较远的将来Who knows what will happen in the future?


62、in the air在空中,悬而未决的(后者比较常用)

in the open air在户外

on the air在广播、正在播放


63、keep doing sth.一直做某事,强调活动不间断的状态

keep on doing sth.一直做某事,强调客服困难持续坚持


64、no more than仅仅,只不过

not more than至多,不超过


65、only if只有…才…

if only要是…就好了,接虚拟语气


66、sometime在过去或未来的某个时候

sometimes有时

some time一段时间

some times几倍、几次


67、used to do过去常常做某事

get/become/beused to doing sth.习惯于

be used to do被用来做某事


68、全部倒装句的常见结构:

here, there,now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。
There goes the bell.

表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.


69、部分倒装句的结构和用法

把“so ... that ...”句型中的“so + 形容词 / 副词”部分放在句首时,be动词或助动词放在主语前面。如:So frightened was the girl that she daren't move an inch further.


用so,neither或nor构成的特殊句型,表示另一人或物也具有和前面提到的同样情况时,出现部分倒装。如:Jim asked the question. So did Lily.
把具有“否定”意义的词语放在句首时,出现部分倒装。如:Never shall I forget your advice.


70、特殊情形倒装

“only + 状语从句”和“not until + 从句”位于句首时,在主句中进行倒装。如:Not until the child slept did the mother leave the room.
“not only...but also...”连接两个分句,not only位于句首时,倒装在not only所在分句进行。如:Not only were the children moved but also the adults showed their pity.


“no sooner...than...”句型中的nosooner位于句首时,倒装在no sooner 主句中进行;“hardly / scarcely...when...”句型中的hardly位于句首时,倒装在hardly / scarcely主句中进行。



71、完型填空解题4步原则:

第一步:跳读。带着空格通读全文,了解短文大意,判别短文文体,同时能将会做的题及时解决掉。
第二步:选答。这一步最为关键,要求考生对每一道题进行认真推敲,但是要告诫他们万万不可按照题的顺序答题,对那些不能拿不准的题先跳过去,遵循先易后难的解题原则。
第三步:推敲。这实际上就是要求考生对完形填空短文的篇章作通盘考虑,把其中一些需要依据上下文语境来考虑的比较难解答的题,以及句子之间和段落之间的逻辑关联较强的认真推敲,甄别,筛选和抉择。
第四步:复查。这是解答这类题的最后一步,要求考生解完题之后务必再把文章通读一遍,从整体上准确把握文章的真正意思,及时修改与全文有出入的一些选项。


72、高考英语听力技巧

迅速浏览问题。利用听录音前的时间,迅速看一遍题目,预测短文或对话可能涉及的内容。
注意听短文的首句和首段。文章的开首句和开首段,往往是对短文内容的概括,如讲话目的、主要内容、作者、论点、故事发生的时间、地点及事由等。
获取对话中的具体信息。注意对话中的一些具体信息,如时间、地点、人物、年代事件、数字等。
理解领会对话的意图观点、态度及内容。要特别注意讲话者随时会改变主意和更正说过的话。有时候,更正的话会由其他人说出来。
立足于整体。不管听什么材料,注意力一定要集中在整体内容的理解上,千万不能只停留在个别单词或单句上。
重点听实词。要把重点放在听关键词即实词上,一边听一边把要点及回答问题的关键词记下来。


73、引导定语从句的常见词
引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等,关系副词包括where,when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。


74、定语从句分类

根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去。非限制性定语从句与主句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。


75、短文改错常见错误检查思路

句中各部分的结构是否完整,特别是每个句子要有动词;
谓语动词的时态、语态;
非谓语动词的用法;
名词的单、复数,格的使用是否正确;
定冠词和不定冠词是否正确;
代词的格和性的使用是否有误;
定语从句中关系代词、关系副词是否准确无误;
并列句中的并列连词、主从复合句中的从属连词用的是否得当。


76、短文改错解题4原则

改动以最少为原则;虚词以添加或删除为原则;实词以改变词形为原则;以保持句子原意为原则。


77、短文改错解题注意事项

核对错项时,若的确有一时难以改出的地方,可以参考所改动项是否基本符合“1:1:8”的比例。即多一词1个,缺词1个,错词8个。
核对改正的语法项目是否有重复。因为短文改错往往覆盖面广,一般不会出现重复考查某个语法点的现象。
核对答题符号是否规范,位置是否准确,看看有无遗漏符号、忽略字母大小写和拼写等问题。


78、短文改错常见错误1

谓语动词的错误是历年考试的重点和热点,常见动词错误类型有①一般现在时与一般过去时错用;②and前后动词时态不一致;③主谓不一致;④缺少动词,特别是be动词;⑤第三人称单数形式错用;⑥主动语态和被动语态错用。
They did not want me to do any work at home; they want me to devote all my timeto my studies. (did改为do,错误类型属于①)
As we climbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories.(visiting改为visited,错误类型属于②) 


79、短文改错常见错误2

名词的常见错误:单复数名词错用,可数名词与不可数名词错用。
I’ll get good marks in all my subject. (subject改为subjects)


80、短文改错常见错误3

冠词错误:误用a和an(根据单词的第一个音素来判定);误用a/an和the(固定搭配,或泛指、特指;多冠词或少冠词)
We maybe one family and live under a same roof. (a改为the,the same是固定搭配)



81、短文改错常见错误4.

形容词和副词错误:系动词(am/is/are/was/were/become/go)和感官性动词(smell/feel)后用形容词;词性的误用(形容词修饰名词;副词修饰动词和形容词)。
I’m sure we’ll have awonderfully time together. (time是名词,要用形容词wonderful修饰)
My pronunciation was terribly. (was后用形容词,terribly改为terrible)


82、短文改错常见错误5.

代词错误:代词的主格和宾格(I/me;he/him; she/her; we/us; they/them)错误;反身代词(myself/yourself/himself/herself/themselves/ourselves)使用错误;代词的单数和复数使用错误;代词指代错误;多代词或少代词。
Soon I began to enjoy talking to myself on paper as I was learning to expressme in simple English. (me改为myself)
One day I wrote a little story and showed to my teacher. (to前加it)


83、短文改错常见错误6

非谓语动词的常见错误:不定式、动名词作主语、宾语时;and连接的不定式或动名词前后不一致;介词后用动名词形式作宾语;某些动词后要求接动名词或不定式。
Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper. (enjoy后需接动名词,talk改为talking)
But his parents think go to college is more important than playing sports. (go作主语,应改为going)


84、短文改错常见错误7

介词错误:词组中的介词误用;介词意思理解偏差;介词的多用或少用。
There are too many people among my family. (among改为in,in my family为固定搭配)
I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my head touched the pillow. (去掉at,the moment引导从句)


85、遇到生词的猜词法——根据定义或解释、说明猜测生词的词义
在有be,call等判断词出现的句子中,可以根据已知部分,猜测生词的含义。例如:
A person who is skilled at making or repairing wooden objects is called acarpenter。
通过理解定语从句的意思,能猜出carpenter是“木匠”的意思。


86、遇到生词的猜词法——根据对比关系猜测生词的词义
在有but,however,yet,otherwise,though这些表示意义转折的连词出现的句子中,其前后的词有明显的对比关系,根据已知的内容,通过这种对比关系,就很容易猜出生词的词义了。例如:Though Tom‘s face has been washed quiteclean,his neck still remains grubby。
和clean意思相对的便是“肮脏的”了,因此可猜出句中grubby的意思是“肮脏的”。


87、遇到生词的猜词法——通过因果关系猜测词义
because,since与as是连接原因状语从句的从属连词,so是连接结果状语从句的连词,so...that...与such...that...中的that是连接结果状语从句的。当这些信息词出现在有生词的句子中,通过因果关系,依据已知部分就能猜出生词的词义。例如:She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was toolong。
根据because从句所讲的意思,我们就可推测trim就是“修剪”之意。


88、遇到生词的猜词法——根据生活常识猜测词义
运用逻辑推理能力,自身的生活经验及生活常识。再联系上下文能读懂的部分,可以正确猜出词义。例如:Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold。
根据句子意思及生活经验,wither是“枯萎”的意思。


89、遇到生词的猜词法——根据同等关系猜测词义
同等关系,指的是一个词,一组词或短语在句中作同一成分,而且它们的词义都属于同一范畴。明显的标志是,这样的词组或短语中间常常用并列连词and或or来连接。例如:At

forty-twohe was in his prime and always full of energy。

从“年龄42岁”以及与prime具有同等关系的full of energy可以猜出prime的意思是“盛年时期”。


90、遇到生词的猜词法——根据列举的事例猜测词义
You can take any of the periodicals:“The World of English”。“Foreign Language Teaching in Schools”,or“English Learning”。从后面列举的例子中,可以猜出periodical是“期刊,杂志”的意思。


91、根据构词法知识猜测词义
根据学过的构词法知识,知道词根和前缀或后缀的意义,就可猜出由它们组成的新词词义。例如:The colors of Hawaii in Summer are unforgettable。
forget 的意思是“忘记”,后缀"-able"表示“能够”,前缀“un”表示否定,所以“unforgettable”意思就是“无法忘记的”或“难忘的”。


92、should+动词原形的虚拟结构

在这个情况下,宾语从句需要使用should+动词原形,口诀:

一、二、四、四:一个坚持(insist)、两个命令(order、command)、四个建议(suggest、propose、recommend、advise)、四个要求(demand、require、request、desire)

I suggest youshould have enough sleep.

动名词和动词不定时区别系列


93、forget to do忘记做某事

forget doing忘记已做过某事


94、regret to do遗憾要做某事

regret doing后悔做过某事


95、mean to do 打算企图做某事

mean doing意味着做某事


96、try to do 努力做某事

try doing试图做某事


97、need to do需要做某事

need doing需要被…

最常见的介词用法


98、by的用法

在…旁边=beside

靠、通过某种手段、交通工具

按照It is 8 by my watch.

在…之前、不迟于Can you return the book by Monday?

被、由用于被动语态 written by Jk.


99、for的用法

为了、给(表示目的)

历经(时间、距离)for a month

以…代价/价钱交换

支持赞成,反义词against

就…而言 too much for me


100、of的用法

所属关系a friend of mine

同位关系the city of BJ

关于,表示动作的对象(常与hear,think,talk连用)hear of sb.

出身、原材料made of

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